Please have a look at this document you will get an idea what charts tableau supports. As of i know tableau support 24 chart types directly.
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The link that Tharashasank has provided is a great starting point for the main chart types Tableau supports, and are 95% of all the charts you'll use.
However the actual answer to your question is almost impossible to answer, due to the genius (IMHO) way Tableau is put together and how charts are drawn. Unlike most other BI tool, Tableau doesn't have a selector for 'Chart Type' [Bar, Line, Pie...] per se, and chart types are drawn by the arrangement of pills and mark-types. Yes the 'Show Me' does contain 24 pre-built chart-types, but when you use this feature you see it's just a few common arrangements of pills and mark types (just a bit of short-cut). Once you've been using the software a few months, you'll probably never use Show Me and will build your charts up from the arrangement of pills and mark-types.
Attached are few examples of some (so called) un-supported chart-types (Jump-plots [which aren't even really a known chart-type!], Nightingale Rose) which shows what can be achieved with a bit of imagination and creativity. I think of Tableau more as data-driven drawing canvas, than a rigid BI tool.
Hope this helps.