Please attach workbook for further process.
Create another calculated field:
if [Match?]="Match" then 1
elseif [Match?]="No Match" then 0
Drag this calculated field into filter and in the "Range of values" filter, provide 1 and 1 for "Match" or 0 and 0 for "No Match".
You just need to write the below code for creating the field that can be used as a filter. After Placing it in the filter shelf it will ask you for true or false option.
Please select true from the same.
ATTR([2012 Product Code]) = ATTR([DATABASE.2016 Product Code])
Let me know if it works. If possible please share the workbook for the better results or you can email me on email@example.com
The calculated field suggested by you should work. However, Alex is also using "Match?" calculated field as a measure to use it for the check marks (see 2nd screenshot). I answered the question considering this aspect in mind. Let me know, if the calculated field suggested by you can be used for this purpose.