It might have to do with permissions. Does your user have Interactor permissions on Tableau Server? Sometimes filters don't show up for specific users if they do not have the requisite permissions.
Here is another forum thread that looked at this topic:
It was permissions; I didn't even think about Interactor privileges. I have row-level permissions set on the database so I was worried about that, didn't stop to think about the Tableau Server permissions. Thanks Steve!