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In this instance, Tableau Online does not have permission to access your DB. There are two options you have to refresh the data and they are both available here: http://kb.tableau.com/articles/issue/error-named-pipes-provider-could-not-open-a-connection-to-sql-server-tableau-online.
One of those options is to use the sync client for Tableau online: http://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/online/en-us/help.htm#to_sync_local_data.htm
Tableau Online is great but there are some major differences between that offering and Tableau Server. More on that here: https://www.interworks.com/blog/bfair/2014/08/26/tableau-online-vs-tableau-server-5-things-consider
I have moved this thread to the Server Administration area of the forums as well so that others following/contributing to Tableau Online and Server admin areas might more easily find and participate in the discussion.
Good Afternoon Yan,
Please confirm, is the database in your local environment on a physical or virtual server? That is, is it behind your corporate firewall as opposed to a cloud hosted location such as AWS or Azure?
Paul's comments above are right-on.
Simplest answers: Follow this overview: Get your Data to Tableau Online
1. If your database is in your environment (behind your firewall):
a. Publish the datasource separate from the workbook. (Make sure you embed the database user name and password into the extract). Get your Data to Tableau Online
b. Schedule a datasource refresh using the Synchronization Client in Tableau Desktop Professional 64-bit Windows version.
c. Publish the workbook connected to the published datasource, NOT the local extract
2. If your database is in the cloud (AWS, Azure, et al..) Will you be publishing an Extract and refreshing from cloud, or using a live pass-through datasource to the cloud account?;
For published data extract source, refreshing from cloud:
a. Publish local extract to Tableau Online: Get your Data to Tableau Online
b. Schedule refreshes directly on Tableau Online - Get your Data to Tableau Online
For live pass-through datasource to the cloud account:
a. Enable "Live Data Source Connections" in the Settings menu of Tableau Online.
KB: Tableau Online: Allow Direct Connections to SQL-based Data in the Cloud
b. White-list the Tableau Online IP address with your cloud provider
If this post helps you resolve the issue, please mark it as "answered correctly" and / or "helpful"
Tableau Online Deployment Advisor