The short answer is no.
Tableau processes (Cache Server and VizQL Server included)
are configured per server (cluster) instance, and the settings are systemwide.
A recommendation would be to have a distinct server for testing / sandboxing.
it would allow for configuration testing, including one with Cache performance.
Tableau allows for up to three distinct server instances using the same license key.
They're typically aimed to a "Production", "QA" and "Reserve" (actual roles may wary).
Hope it may help.