Good news Tableau has not broken. It's doing exactly what its told to do. Programming languages read through an if/then statement and the first time they have a match they exit. In this case things exit because they met a criteria. This sucks for us because we need things that overlap.
We get around this by creating a parameter that references individual calculations, just like this link: Swapping Measures Using Parameters | Tableau Software Or... what should be a step by step below.
[Last 3 Days]
IF [date_field] >= TODAY()-3 and [date_field] <= TODAY() THEN 'Include' Else 'Exclude' END
[Last 30 Days]
IF [date_field] >= TODAY()-30 and [date_field] <= TODAY() THEN 'Include' Else 'Exclude' END
IF [inCurrentFiscalYear] = 1 then 'Fiscal Year' THEN 'Include' Else 'Exclude' END
[Last 140 Days]
IF [date_field] >= TODAY()-140 and [date_field] <= TODAY() THEN ''Include' Else 'Exclude' END
Now we create a parameter [Date Filter]
Change the parameter type to string and list then allow for the categories
Last 3 Days, Last 30 Days, Fiscal Year, Last 140 Days
Right click the now created parameter and select 'Show Parameter Control' -wa-la filter in the top right corner.
And the calculated field that does it all
CASE [Date Filter]
WHEN 'Last 3 Days' THEN [Last 3 Days]
WHEN 'Last 30 Days' THEN [Last 30 Days]
WHEN 'Fiscal Year' THEN [Fiscal Year]
WHEN 'Last 140 Days' THEN [Last 140 Days]
Drag this field to the filters shelf and select 'Include'
Perfect. Followed your instructions and was able to set it up in minutes. Thanks for the help!