You can show the user the fields that are excluded by displaying the filter as a "quick filter" on your dashboard.
This can be setup to show all of the field options and a "checkbox" next to them with the selected options "checked".
(Alternatively, you could create a secondary sheet that uses shared filters and an LOD calc to get the total.)
Let's say I included name quick filter in the sheet, but the user excluded the values from ID column. Overall the row will be excluded and I don't even get to see that thing in the Name filter as well.
Correct - you would need to use the "name" filter, not the ID filter for it to work that way.