What version is the desktop that you're trying to publish from and what version is the server? You may have to dig into the logs to get into the root cause.
You may have to re-point the workbook to the TDE:
To replace the TDE:
1. Right-click the data source from the data sources pane on a worksheet in Tableau Desktop and select Edit Connection
2. Navigate to the TDE in the file system
If the workbook is a TWBX and a user does not have access to the TDE on the file system:
1. Navigate to the twbx in the file system and extract
2. If the option to extract is unavailable, replace the twbx file extension with .zip to force the file system to recognize it as a zip which can then be extracted
3. From the extracted twbx, copy and paste the TDE to a location on your file system.
4. Follow steps 1 and 2 from the "To replace the TDE" instructions