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Check out the screenshot below from this link:
So for a single box installation with 16 cores, I would run 4 VizQL (double 8 core example above), 4 cache server processes, and 4 data server processes, and min. 4 & max. 8 backgrounder processes.
Are you going to use VM to host Tableau Server? If yes, keep in mind that Tableau Server is *very* resource-intensive due to its interactive nature. Some people mistakenly think it's just a lightweight web server. Best practice says to allocated 100% dedicated CPU and RAM (contiguous and no dynamic RAM!) to Tableau Server in a VM environment; no sharing or pooling of anything. Also, make sure you put Tableau in your anti-virus software's exclusion list a la this KB article.
Thanks John for your help in making me understand about the no of processes I should use based on the configuration.