Only the primary machine will run the 8-hour licensing check, therefore the other machines should be fine without outside internet access.
I'm not sure what is this 8 hour license check, but Tableau Server clusters don't need to be on the Internet at all. You do need to contact licensing.tableausoftware.com when activating or renewing a license key, but that can be done using a browser-based offline process. You do have to be careful to verify that the key on such machine is current, before performing an upgrade, or you may end up in trouble.
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To explain the 8-hour licensing check:
The primary Tableau Server is the only place where licensing can be run. Licensing is checked every 8 hours. If the primary is only running the licensing component, and depending on when the licensing check last occurred, you have up to 8 hours to bring the backup primary online. During that window of time, the cluster will continue to function. For example, if the licensing check occurred 7 hours and 50 minutes ago, you have 10 minutes. If the licensing check occurred 1 minute ago, you have 7 hours and 59 minutes.
Fortunately, that doesn't involve Internet connection. It's the worker servers checking against your admin/licensing (aka "primary") server. It's the reason why you need to have a cold standby for the primary, and a weak point in Tableau's High(ish) Availability.
Right right I was just referencing what 8-hour process we're referring to. You're completely correct.
Is there information available how to find the exact time the license check occurs in our environments
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This should really be it's own question but I can help out here:
You can check the specific logs for each process. On a single machine instance they would be located somewhere like this: C:\ProgramData\Tableau\Tableau Server\data\tabsvc\logs\licensing Or in a set of ziplogs in the licensing folder. If you are running a distributed environment with multiple worker servers the individual files will be located on each worker machine, or in ziplogs in the worker machine folder under licensing.
Additionally you can see license checks inside the tabspawn logs for each process. Technically only the data engine checks every 8 hours, most others hardly check even close to that often. For the data engine check inside the dataengine folder for a file called tabspawnde or tabspawnde0 etc C:\ProgramData\Tableau\Tableau Server\data\tabsvc\logs\dataengine or in the workers dataengine folder in ziplogs. in the file check for the line: Successfully checked license. Machine is licensed.
Hope this helps.