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You are getting 83% for red, for example, in 2014 because the sum([Excellent]) for 2014 is 83% of the sum([Excellent]) across your whole table. (83.3 + 16.7 = 100).
To the best of my knowledge, you can't expect Tableau to figure out % of total of multiple measures unless you tell it to do that.
SUM([Excellent]) / ( SUM([Excellent])+SUM([Average])+SUM([Better])+SUM([Worse]) )
... will get you the 25% you want for red for 2014.
Do that for each measure. Select THOSE calc fields instead of making the quick table calcs you made.
Thank you, Joe, especially for explaining how Tableau is thinking about things. Just curious...why wouldn't a "table down" calc work here, or one per time unit? Both seemed like they were options, they produced different results, but nothing expected.
TABLE(down) or TABLE(across) or "using YEAR" didn't matter, for the way you had it set up. Tableau was looking only at one measure at a time. One of those might have produced a result of 100% perhaps.
Half the fun of this product is getting into the mind of Tableau.