If you're asking if you can use an embedded google maps web part from a dashboard to act as a filter for other sheets on the dashboard the answer is no.
If you have a custom web application with google maps embedded and a Tableau dashboard embedded on the same page the answer is maybe. You'll need to check to Google Maps API for onClick event listeners functionality and determine if values can be passed from the API back to the application. I'm pretty confident this is doable.
If you mean a google map that is embedded in a dashboard in a web object, then I don't believe so.
Can you explain your use case? What is it exactly you are trying to visualize/analyze?