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Do you have the product rows sorted by in the order you want to filter?
If you do, you might be able to add a discrete calculated field, INDEX(), to the left of the Product dimension on the Rows shelf. This will essentially add a row number. You can then drag a copy (ctrl-right-click) to the filter shelf and set it to show just the top 10.
RANK() introduced in Tableau 8.1 is another option with a little more flexibility.
If you don't---and need to sort based on a table calculation---then you won't be able to specify the Product sort order using the table calc, but you can add a discrete copy of the table calc left of the Product dimension to force the sort order. And then add index().