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This would be simpler to do with reshaped data. Notably, your Passed/Failed Columns could be combined into one column with a row identifier for Pass/Fail. The percentages would be easier to do in Tableau with the data in this format.
To filter for only John, you can create a calculated field like:
Place that on the filters shelf, and only John will remain and both his pass and fail numbers will be returned.
Using the data you provided, we can still get the results you want. See attached. With the data in this format, a total measure had to be created, which is equal to your Failed + Passed fields. Then, the failed or passed fields must be divided by the total to get your percentages. Example attached. Note that the "Clipboard" data source was created by simply opening Tableau 8.1 and copying and pasting the data you placed in this thread.