You should be able to publish multiple times using a single workbook. When you publish, you can define a different name for the workbook. So publish once under one name with the views you want. Then publish again using a different name and the other set of views you want. Would that work?
Publish workbook as Dashboard 1:
Publish again as Dashboard 2:
What do you mean by "server" workbook? Are you dealing with more than one server (sites? different URLs?)?
My first reaction answer to your question is "no" but I don't understand your question fully. Joshua's method will work (it's one workbook) but will require you to physically publish it multiple times with changes made to the name and exposed tabs and these multiple publishings will be physical copies stored on the server...which doesn't sound like something you want to perform.
However, if you are using embedded credentials and scheduling an incremental or full extract then once you publish the workbooks you are done. There will be no need to continue republishing.