I took a quick look at this and found two issues:
I don't see why you need the Distance Filter to be a table calc, it would work fine as a regular aggregate and have higher performance. (Tableau loads all data before applying table calc filters, whereas filters on regular aggregates are almost always computed in the data source, so there's fewer results to deal with and less data to be moved across the wire). The one caveat is that we can't put discrete aggregates on the Filters Shelf, so the formula would need to be something like IF [Distance from me] <= [Max distance] THEN 1 END and filter for non-Null values. I set that up in the attached.
As for the Jobs Total, you have no linking fields in the view nor are there any turned on. Without that, you'll get errors (which I think is why Matt linked to my blog post). Even if you do turn on the linking fields, there's nothing that is filtering or grouping the view and the "Distance from me" calc will return the sum of distances across the entire data set (currently 48.10). Then the Distance filter is looking for a max distance up to 20, etc. and doesn't return any result. I created a revised worksheet where Client ID is in the view so the Distance from me will be properly aggregated for each client. Then I created the calc IF FIRST()==0 THEN TOTAL(COUNTD([Job ID])) END, the IF FIRST()==0 part returns only one value, the TOTAL(COUNTD()) with a Compute Using on Client ID tells Tableau to run the COUNTD() across the entire data source, and returns an accurate result.
This is beyond sweet! Thanks for helping me sort this out! Your solution should help us scale a ton, since our previous solution was using joins and duplicating the entire data set for each client.
Again, thanks so much!