Hey Erick -
While I can't answer your specific question (why is this happening in your environment), I see something different on my systems. Keep in mind I went from 8.0 to 8.01 to 8.02, so my upgrade path was different. Have you tried bouncing the entire worker itself (not Tableau, but the actually machine) just to see if this is plane-jane Windows Firewall strangeness at work? What about shutting down the Windows Firewall altogether, then re-enabling it?
Anyway, I have two rules setup for the Admin Server - they both are on the Domain profiles, and they both allow all ports (not just 3730). I've been using this worker since the dawn of time in terms of the 8.0 beta, so I'm not clear on whether TWO rules should actually be there or if one got left behind during some long-forgotten uninstall mishap.
Yep, I've rebooted both servers and still see this behavior. Same with disabling/enabling the Windows firewall. Yes, I too have two rules named that way, but one is UDP and the other TCP. The rule are tied to the program, not ports.