You have to remember what filtering is really doing. It is removing records from your data that meet the filter criteria. Therefore, you cannot enforce a filter on some columns but not others--it works at a record level.
To do what you're describing, you can make a "conditional measure" calculated field.
In your example, you would create a measure field for "Sales Last 5 Weeks."
For simplicity in this example, I'll just assume you want the sales from the last 35 days starting from today. For the other field, (whole year) let's assume that refers to the last 365 days.
Sales Last 5 Weeks:
IF [Date] >= DATEADD('day',-35,TODAY()) THEN [Sales] ELSE 0 END
Sales Last 365 Days:
IF [Date] >= DATEADD('day',-365,TODAY()) THEN [Sales] ELSE 0 END
Now, you have the ability to pull both measures onto your view.
Hope that helps. If you have other questions, it'd be helpful if you could post a packaged workbook.
I will see if i can use the above conditions and force filter on one column.
Appriciate your help.