Hi Brianne, I don't have the time to really understand what your issue is right now (sorry) but now that it is 20+ days old I fear it might get lost, so I'm bumping it.
When you do a sort on a dimension pill or a set, you are sorting across the entire data set, after any row-level filtering on dimensions but before any filters on aggregates. You can see this in your workbook because Phoenix and SoCal change places when you remove CNT(Number of Records) from the view. I've also set up an example of this with 12 rows of data in the attached sorting.twbx workbook. So that describes one issue, but it doesn't solve it nor solves the issue with Houston and SD Main Campus in the Masters data, and there's no way within sorting of Sets to "restart" the sort the way you'd like.
However, when we set up a table calculation, Tableau creates a "set" of everything in the Compute Using and sorts that, and then we can restart and partition that as we want based on the Compute Using, Restarting Every, and At the Level, which is exactly what you did with your Rank calculations. So instead of trying to get a sort that matches the Rank, just use a discrete version of the Rank calc to get the data in the right order and Tableau will sort that alphanumerically (so if you want a descending sort then just use a calc like -[Rank]). I set that up in the "use Rank for Sort" in the attached. With this, we no longer need to do any sorting in the view, the table calcs take care of it.
Even though we can set the same table calc to have different compute usings in the same view, for ease of maintenance, I'd suggest using two separate rank calcs, that way it's really clear which pill someone is manipulating.
Scratch what I wrote about the sort order, I think what I'm seeing is a bug. I went to reopen the workbook and this is the sort order I saw, which would indicate that all filtering is happening before the sort:
Moving the SUM(Value) filter around doesn't change anything. However, after removing the pill from the Filters Shelf and re-adding it, I can bring back the behavior I was describing:
I'll submit this to Tableau tech support and see what they say.
did you get a reponse from the Tech Tableau team?
I am having troubles filtering the data and then ranking the top 10 values.
I would suggest opening a new discussion/question on the Forum, along with a packaged workbook (.twbx) file demonstrating your setup, as well as a mock up of what you want as an expected result. Someone will be happy to assist you. Cheers.