I believe that when you publish your workbook to the Server, you need to be sure that you click the checkbox 'Show Sheets As Tabs'... once you do that, your actions should work correctly. That took care of my problems anyway, so I hope this helps, even if it's a few days late.
I am having the same issue, where my actions work fine on Desktop but don't function on Server... I published with the "Show Sheets As Tabs" and it still isn't working... any ideas?
I wish I was more of a guru.. Beyond confirming that your Server version is compatible with your desktop version, I don't have another answer to this one. I'm going through a lot of Server publishing growing pains myself, so I truly wish I could help more. Maybe a Tableau expert will happen on this thread...
I realize that this is an older post, however I had a similar issue today. I was able to fix it by doing the following...
In my action that wasn't working on the server, I was linking to a worksheet. I created a dashboard and just added the one worksheet to it. I recreated the action exactly as I had it before, tested it on my machine, uploaded it to the server, and tested on the server. Everything worked.
On the server, the action was not working when it was linked to the worksheet, but it was working when it was linked to a dashboard. Not sure why exactly, but I'm not going to complain about the results.
Hope this helps