I am having a similar problem. I have a dashboard with some global quick filters formatted as compact list (drop-down menus) on it. When I publish it to Tableau server, the filters disappear; everything else remains intact. I, as the publisher, am able to view the filters when I open the workbook from the server on my web browser, but other users cannot even though they have editor privileges. So I would be really interested in the answer as well
As a follow-up, apparently the issue with my thing was the restricted license levels on the server side. So when I made the Tableau server admins change the users' license levels from "Viewer" to "Interactor", the issue has been resolved. I think that might be the answer to the problem you're having as well. Best.