Attached is a workbook showing one way to create this view using the Superstore Sales data, using a count of orders as the measure, and Order Date for the date.
The workbook uses the following calculated fields:
Weekday of Order - a field with the formula DATENAME('weekday',[Order Date]) to allow us to partition the table calculations by the weekday.
Week Filter - when set to filter on True on the Filter shelf, only returns the last 7 weeks of data, to improve performance by reducing the number of rows that Tableau is retrieving from the DB.
Latest Result Filter - when set to filter on True on the Filter shelf, this table calculation filter "hides' what would be overlapping rows, the Compute Using is set to Order Date.
Last 7 Weeks Orders - a table calculation that calculates the average for the last 7 weeks, with the Compute Using also set to Order Date.
The Crosstab worksheet shows the results with the filters applied, then we can create a view with Measure Values on Rows, Measure Names on the Color shelf, WEEK(Order Date) on the Level of Detail and the Weekday of Order on Columns.
Hope this helps!
Ok. I'm working through this, but it is not quite behaving as expected. As soon as I am sure it's not me making an obvious mistake, I will post my closest try.
FOLLOWUP: I ended up doing this in SQL. I could not get the clean graph I wanted doing it in Tableau, as I had to drag extra fields over.