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You can dynamically color green pills (including Measure Values), but cannot color blue pills (discrete values/dimensions). There is a workaround where you can use multiple axes (green pills) and use discrete values as the labels for the marks created by the axes, see http://public.tableausoftware.com/views/conditionalformattingv4/Introduction for details. These instructions are drawn from techniques used in that workbook.
If you want to color the text, then you first create a calculated field that is something like:
IF [Last Column] = 0 THEN "Color" ELSE "Don't Color" END
Then drag that field onto the Color shelf, Tableau will default to using Blue/Orange. Click on the Edit Color shelf to edit the colors to the desired values.
If you want to color the background, then you will use the same calculation and then use a highlight table. Creating one when there are multiple measures in the view gets a little complicated, the link above has instructions on how to do that.