Since Tableau Public is being used, the workbook would have to be republished with the different data, since Public has a 100k row limit. With Tableau Server you would be able to connect to the data base and filter accordingly.
Ok, thanks. So seems like I should avoid using the row import filter.
Instead, I should generate the dataset to be smaller than 100K before importing to Tableau Desktop. And to handle the newer data, just regenerate the dataset with the same filename and do a F5/fresh inside Tableau instead.