We are also facing similar issue. We have out Tableau Desktop on Citrix environemnt (under our network) & Tableau server on non-Citrix environment. When we are trying to connect to Server, the error message diplayed - "invalid user name or password". but when we are trying same from non Citrix Tableau Desktop everything works fine. I'll appriciate any help on this issue.
It works the same for us. We have not yet found a solution. In all the troubleshooting, one config worked for the network system admin, who has rights to everything, but nobody else.