I'd also like to point out that I checked our users' licenses and all of them that can no longer view the quick filters are listed as an Interactor, not a Viewer.
Have you checked the permissions of the user / group in Tableau server to ensure they have been given the ability to use filters?
When the dashboard is published from Desktop you have to pick the users/groups who need access - at this point you also get the option to select the level of permissions that you want them to have (see attached screenshot). There should be a couple of default options but you can configure custom permissions to suit your needs (i.e. allow filters but not comments)
Thank you, Andy, that was the problem -- I edited permissions and filters are back.
Can you fitler by columns with condition in the Server version? Which profile is required to have this enabledD?