There is an option within each sheet of a dashboard to show the quick filters for whatever field in on the view of that dashboard. By clicking on the triangle in the upper right corner of the worksheet (within the dashboard), and selecting Quick Filters will give a list of all available filters for that sheet. However, this is not exactly intuitive. This might be a good one to put in the Ideas section of the Community.
You would be able to do a workaround to get to this.
Try creating a parameter call filter type with a list of filters you want the user to be able to select.
Then create a calculated field that references this parameter:
Case [Filter Type]
when 'City' then [City]
when 'Town' then [Town]
when 'Name' then [Name]
Then put this calculated field as a quick filter and the options will change with the parameter.
Wow just realised this thread is 3 years old!
Good old "more like this" section .
I was looking for a similar workaround. I'll give this a try - thanks for posting.