I think this might be because the windows user that runs the Tableau Server processes might not be in AD or have access to it?
When you start the Tableau Settings app (go Start - All Programs - Tableau Server - Configure Tableau Server), there is a domain\username and password section on the first tab. Do you have the default NTAUTHORITY\NetworkServices or a Nameofmachine\Username there? see picture attached.
If it is the case you need to change this to an actual DomainName\Username which has access to your network resources and AD domain in particular. also that user needs the right "Log on as a service".
Currently it's NTAUTHORITY\NetworkServices, has been for nearly 12 months but who knows what could have changed network auth wise.
The strange bit is when I attempt a username/pw login, the AD servers show an invalid password attempt and increment the invalid attempts count - and lock me at 3. So, there's connectivity but who knows what's going on in the middle.
I'll give this a whirl nonetheless.
Righto, it appears that our dear IT group is migrating to a new domain. Currently a random assortment of machines are in it but no users. As luck would have it, my Tableau machine is in the new domain but I login as a user of the original domain. That works, but other communication in that regard seems not to be right.
So, that explains why it's working on one machine and failing on another when they look identically configured.
Thanks for your suggestion, though.