I would like to see a more complete Order of Operations diagram, making it very clear which steps are calculations, and which are filters. I teach a Tableau class and it's sometimes hard for students to link these concepts when first learning the program.
The purpose of a better diagram is to help new users understand some of the common challenges with designing and troubleshooting a Workbook or Dashboard -- without being so overwhelming to be hard to use.
This is my attempt at redrawing the most common concepts (with thanks to Joe Mako for his feedback). It seems correct, but it may be over-simplifying or splitting up steps that are simultaneous, I'm really not sure. Some of the items on the 'filter' side are not strictly speaking filters, but they are all things that are capable of reducing the number of marks on the page, while those on the left do not.
The most complete diagram that Tableau currently puts out seems to be the one below, which is missing some important details IMHO