When adding a date pill to the column shelf the date format is determine (e.g. Month Year, Exact Date, etc.).
I then often add the date pill in as a Relative Date Range filter so that I can analyze the measure across a multitude of time periods.
It would be great if there were a way to make the axis partition and label the data based on the time period selected.
In the example below, I have filtered out the 'Last 4 quarters' , however, Tableau does not show the last 4 quarters
The following link shows additional commentary and workarounds related to this idea.