This is already covered here, but it came up recently, so I thought I'd post an example.
In the attached 8.1.6 packaged workbook, I am coloring the bars in the bottom sheet by the Segment colors in the top sheet, then duplicating the same measure on a second axis, with the measure on the color shelf. Turn that into a dual axis, and set the measure's coloring to be a sequential grey color scheme, set your transparency to around 65%, and you'll have the affect you want--bars colored by both a dimension, and a range of measure values.
Note that we can also use a negative version of the measure on a single axis to accomplish something similar--but as Jonathan Drummey points out in his comments at the link above, the dual axis may provide a more accurate representation of the range of values.
(see Method 2 workbook attached--I am also uploading both images since the Forum is not displaying the second image uploaded)