After some further investigations it happens only at the end of the extract process, tableau runs a sum query
SELECT SUM(1) AS "cnt:TEMP(one)(290714814)(0):qk"
HAVING (COUNT(1) > 0)
which simply just fills the disk to capacity with that spool tmp file. The query I am taking is doing an expansion of records from a date table that has a start and end date cross joined to a table that populates all the dates in between so that several other tables that are dates specific can match up against the specific dates. I am running the extract as a multi table to avoid having tableau explode all the dates out in a single table extract. I've tried about a half dozen iterations of the queries but they all cause this error to happen when I take an extract.
I've seen some other forum topics about using connection customizations to prevent this sum query from being run against a database but I don't see any way to stop it from happening against the extract.