Tableau Bridge only works with published data sources not embedded data sources so you should confirm that your published workbook is connecting to the published DS. You can do this by locating the published data source and checking for connected workbooks. You can also see when the extract was last refreshed separately from when the workbook was last updated.
An alternate workflow is to publish a live connection to your Excel file that is maintained by Tableau Bridge. When your workbook is used, Tableau Online will query for the latest live data via Tableau Bridge. There are pros and cons of that vs. extract but they both work.