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This link will guide you for full refresh https://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/pro/desktop/en-us/extracting_refresh.htmlhttp://https://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/pro/desktop/en-us/extracting_refresh.html
The refresh depends on the number of columns,data types, the kinda of RAM you are using..In your case i would go for a LIVE connection ( create a view with proper indexes and use LIVE)
If that is not an option break your extracts in chunks of 10 Million and calculate the refresh time.Tableau Server has a timeout for extract refresh,and it is 2 hours (7200 seconds) by default.( admin can change this). Optimizing extracts improve refresh time and give better dashboard interactivity. https://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/server/en-us/perf_optimize_extracts.htm
Check this link too https://community.tableau.com/thread/170922
It will be based on your data source and tableau desktop version.Latest versions using hyper and it will read fast.
It won't read 2 billion ANYTHING fast.
This is poor advice