I have this exact same problem.
I have created a ticket with Tableau Support for this.
I had a call with the tech support guy.
It's a known issue with writing hyper files to any network location. Apparently OneDrive is treated the same way as a network drive.
The short-term solution is that we have to save hyper files outside of OneDrive folders. Not ideal, but there it is.
He asked that I do the following:
1. Close all Tableau Prepp and Online Sync Client instances on the computer.
2. Navigate to the My Tableau Prep Repository folder and rename the current Logs folder to "Logs_Backup". This effectively archives the outdated logs and will force Tableau Prep to create a new and clean Logs folder when the issue is reproduced.
3. Start Tableau Prep and reproduce the issue.
4. Note the date and time when the issue occurred.
5. Close all Tableau Prep sessions that are open on your computer. This step ensures that all errors and relevant information are recorded in the log file.
6. Navigate to the My Tableau Prep Repository folder.
7. Right-click the "Logs" folder (Not the "Logs_Backup" folder we created earlier), and select Send to > Compressed (zipped) folder.
8. Send the resulting .zip archive to Tableau Technical Support.
Another option would be to save the .hyper extract in a location other than the One Drive repository.