I don't know of a control mechanism other than resizing the filter on a dashboard.
In the attached (10.1) I have a dashboard with a giant filter on Dashboard 1.
On Dashboard 2 I just dragged the bottom of the filter up so that the space it occupies is smaller.
superstore -- example for Tucker.twbx 1,009.7 KB
Thank you for looking into this for me. Can this functionality be used when a filter is a part of a drop down instead of a list? For example, if there are 100 items in a dropdown list, when the list is clicked on, it will expand the entire length of the visualization, but I'd like it to only show 10 to 12 options with the ability to scroll down to see more.
Oh, I get what you're asking now....
I've never seen a way to mess with that. So I just tried out some stuff. I shrunk the height of the dashboard to see if tableau would limit the size of the drop down to the dashboard size. (Nope.) I shrunk the size of the window of my desktop to see if Tableau would limit the size of the dropdown to that. (Nope.)
Those were conditions I could think of where the size of the dropdown mattered. You might have some other particular need for the limitation.
I suggest that you post a new idea on the IDEAS forum:
Spell out a good description of why you would need such a limit on size. (Actually, you should search the forum to see if it has already been suggested! And if so, then vote UP the idea.)