We are facing the same issue. Read the posts above and it seems we don't yet have a solution for msaccess linked sharepoint list datasource to be refreshed from server.
From the desktop, all works fine.
when published to the server, it keeps on loading... with error after some time
could see the below in F12
/vizql/t/AFC/w/Book4/v/Sheet1/bootstrapSession/sessions/641FAF3677674729852F6B445BDAF646-0:1 HTTPS POST 502 text/html 1.13 KB 1800.70 s XMLHttpRequest
Verified that the service account for tableau has access to sharepoint site. MS access drivers are installed.
FYI: I branched this as a new discussion away from Why does Tableau Desktop work with MS Access DB and SharePoint List as linked table and Tableau Server not? due to version differences (two years ago) and that the original was answered.