What version of TS are you on?
Physical or virtual host?
How many active users?
How many heavy extract refreshes?
Are workloads shifted somehow?
I mean user requests mostly at daytime,
extract refreshes mostly at nighttime.
For a 'typical' single-node instance
with the 'typical' workload (as the above)
four Backgrounders seem an easy move.
Four Caches wouldn't add much (if any), imho.
500+ Active Users
10 Heavy Extracts
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In my opinion I would assign 4 Backgrounders and 2 VizQL. Reducing the VizQL Server processes allows a higher cache hit rate. Per the documentation it's recommended that the number of Cache Servers equals the number of VizQL Servers.
Please add one more number to this list to have better clarity.
What's the number of concurrent users which will help to decide number of VizQL and Cache Servers , so that it does not impact the viewing experience of user , does not slow down the viewing experience.
Also if you can analyze the peak hours to avoid any heavy extracts running at same time.
By the way , 16 core machine with 256GB is a very good machine for a single node instance of Tableau Server. 1:16 is a good core to memory ratio.
How caching is set up can affect user experience, too.
It's best to work with your Tableau sales manager on initial server setup. The admin guide also has suggestions at an extremely broad level.
Thanks, What about the Data Engine?
Should that be increased to 2 or more since we are going towards more extracts
One DE should be fine for you. Note that in 10.5 we don't need to establish DE processes as Tableau does it automatically.