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Please see the below snippet from the Tableau product help on authentication in Tableau Server. The user, if using Active Directory, will need to be on the AD that is configured for the Tableau Server. Otherwise the Tableau Server credentials need to be used. BUT regardless of the authentication method the user must exist on Tableau Server and in the external authentication technology, in this case Active Directory.
Authentication verifies a user's identity. Everyone who needs to access Tableau Server—whether to manage the server, or to publish, browse, or administer content—must be represented as a user in the Tableau Server identity store. The method of authentication may be performed by Tableau Server (“local authentication”), or authentication may be performed by an external process. In the latter case, you must configure Tableau Server for external authentication technologies such as Active Directory, SAML, or OpenID. In all cases, whether authentication takes place locally or is external, each user identity must be represented in the Tableau Server identity store, which is managed by the repository.
I hope this helps!