The exact table layout will be a little difficult predominantly because you have date ranges that would fall into more than one category. The way I handled this was to use the Totals function of a table, hiding some data, but the result is that the layout is slightly different than what you have listed. You could potentially accomplish a pseudo layout like you posted if you create two sheets with the same table layout, but different aggregations, hide header labels on one, and put them next to each other on a dashboard.
Also notice that I've simulated "This Week" using a parameter just because the data is stagnant. In a live workbook, you would just use TODAY() in place of that.
See 3 calculations and let me know if any of it warrant explanation:
End of this Week
The way I accomplished table layout was to hide value "Earlier Week" resulting from WeekType calculation, but include hidden values in Totals. %Difference calculations were just done using the UI - click on a sum pill>Quick Table Calculation>Percent Difference, and then setting the Relative To and aggregations as needed. It could certainly be customized to supress the zero values under "Prior Week", but I figured this gets you close enough to do what you want to from here.
KPIs table.twbx 26.4 KB