The precise capability that you are looking for may not be precisely available in the Tableau Desktop product. I was able to find the following community post which details a few different methods to design a similar scenario and use case;how to create tabs in tableau
Additionally the following post has some amazing tricks and tips for designing workbooks with intuitive filters and dynamic features to use. We made a video of Sheet Swapping and Legend/Filter Popping on a dashboard. The video was created by a couple of the Tableau Community members.
I hope this helps!