That is an interesting behavior. What version of Tableau Server are you trying to publish the workbook to? Is the version similar to that of the Tableau Desktop program?
Tableau Server and Tableau Desktop are best together when they have matching versions. There are some slight exceptions which as detailed in the below linked Tableau Desktop and Tableau Server compatibility article.
Does saving the workbook in the new version of Tableau Desktop, prior to publication, allow for the workbook to publish as expected?
Additionally, does replacing the data source allow for the workbook to publish as expected?