I believe this is possible. When you upload your data, you can add filters. The
Your spreadsheet appears to be correctly formatted. When Tableau reads the imported file, it will assign a date range. Below is a snapshot of a workbook I downloaded from Ryan Sleeper's website about Major League Soccer (MLS) team standings. The regular season starts in March and ends in October.
To create a filter, drag the Dimension or Measure into the Filter shelf (I used Date in the above image). You will be asked whether you wanted it presented by Month, Quarter, Month Year, etc. Here is how it will look:
I hope this helps.