What version of Server are you running? what is the setting for caching? have you you tried restarting tableau server?
Also check the "Status" pages of Tableau server >> "Background tasks for extracts" and see if it says they failed or succeeded.
I have not used the refresh all extracts as all of ours are on schedules, but I did have issues with new data not showing in published reports when we had caching set to "Cache less often" I am running Server 10.1
Hope this helps
Just realized you never said anything about server. Are you only running Tableau desktop? if so, ignore the above recommendations.
Sorry for any confusion,