This depends a lot on the complexity of your shapes. With simple convex shapes, and enough math, this might be possible, but it would definitely not be easy. If you have irregular shapes, the complexity increases exponentially. I wouldn't recommend it, at least with the current version of Tableau. Tableau 10.2 is supposed to include support for some geospatial data types, but I don't know if it will go so far as to include geospatial matching or relationship functions. I doubt it.
I find Alteryx to be fantastic for this kind of functionality. Other modern databases, including SQL Server and PostgreSQL include geospatial functions, but expect the learning curve to be pretty steep.
I hope that helps.