Submitted a case for this and this is the response:
In this case, it appears that Tableau creates a temporary table to materialize the join but finds a mismatch between data type and content for one or more fields, for example finding a 'Date' when a 'String' is expected.
This looks to me like an issue with the data join. Moving forward I would check to make sure that the joining fields are the same data type. When connecting to data in a newer, or older, version of Tableau Desktop, sometimes Tableau Desktop interprets the data type differently.
Given the above log entry it looks like Tableau Desktop interpreted a joining field as an integer when it should have been a string.