This type of formatting is likely not going to be possible with a single view. If you could post a sample workbook with how far you've gotten, I'd be happy to see if I can help you along.
I didn't think it was possible, but thought I would give the forum a try.
Attached is a Sample Super Store worksheet, showing the furthest I can get. I can get QoQ and YoY to align next to measures (e.g. Sales/Profit) but not dimensions (e.g. Furniture/Office Supplies/Technology). It would also be ideal to get a Green/Red Triangle next to each QoQ/YoY value to represent an increase/decrease; if not a shape, then colored text for positive/negative values would be second best.
I figure if Excel can do it then so can Tableau, just in a round about way...
Here's a screen shot: