In order to just make sense of the logs and to help get you an introduction into what info is contained in each, I would highly recommend taking a look at LogShark
This tool takes a zip of your server logs and outputs a number of vizzes with different looks at the server logs.
As far as seeing what selections are made on a filter, this is a little more difficult as it would require analyzing the vizqlserver logs (the ones that look like Desktop logs) to search for the WHERE or HAVING clauses that interest you and your workbook. With the vizql output of Logshark, you may be able to construct a viz that lets you narrow down to just the one workbook in which you are interested and then dive in from there.
I hope this helps,