What do you mean by "Component"? Are you talking about a physical resource like RAM, CPU or Hard Drive Space or are you referring to processes like VizQL Server, Backgrounder, Search & Browse, Cache Server, etc.? Each setup is a little different depending on different needs. If you are going to do a multi-node install, you will probably want to achieve High Availability and this online help guide is a great first step in understanding that process: Understanding High Availability Additionally, the Tableau Server Whitepaper on Scalability would be a good read Tableau Server 9.0 Scalability: Powering Self-Service Analytics at Scale | Tableau Software as well.
Hope this helps!