Please file a support case.
I'd like to take closer look (datasource + server logs)
To very least - if you could scan through backgrounder*.txt log files (under C:\ProgramData\Tableau\Tableau Server\data\tabsvc\vizqlserver\Logs), locate this error and correlate it with a query Tableau and share - that would move us in the right direction.
Seems like error is coming from casting string to an integer that finds non-numeric string somewhere...
Did you change type on any of your fields? If yes - what sort of data do you have in that field?
I submitted a support ticket and was able to resolve the issue by not using the INT function on a calculated field. What threw me off was that this error didn't appear when the extract was refreshed from Desktop. Apparently, on server, the order of the where clause is different.